This is by far one of the most common failings of Security Operations. I’ve reviewed the maturity of several large global Security Operations Centres and they appear to be doing a reasonable job of the prediction, detection and investigation of information security incidents – but none of this is visible to the rest of the organisation who funds their operational budgets.
It is common to find someone who has started life as an operational information security person, maybe originally a firewall or Intrusion Detection System administrator, who’s career ultimately takes them to SOC Manager. Their life has been steeped in the operational reports produced by technical controls such as firewalls, Intrusion Detection Systems and anti-virus solutions. These reports a meaningful to him, although I’d argue about the contextual value you can gain out of an individual control’s report, but count based metrics such as ’37 unauthorised access attempts across the business’ or ‘300,000 block spam emails’ are pretty meaningless to senior management.
I’m reminded of Monty Python’s Spanish Inquisition Scene set in Jarrow in 1911 where Graham Chapman enters and says to the mill owner: “One on’t cross beams gone owt askew on treddle” to which the mill owner, both unaccustomed to the regional dialect and technical jargon says “Pardon?“.
Graham Chapman’s character is looking to the mill owner for support and direction, but he’s presenting the problem in the operational language he understands. If he’d said “A vital piece of the manufacturing equipment in our rail sleeper production has become mis-aligned halting production” instead of “I didn’t expect some kind of Spanish Inquisition” the problem would have got sorted and Cardinals Ximinez, Fang and Biggles would have never appeared.
It is the job of the Security Operations Centre, just like the rest of the information security function, to present meaningful decision support management information around information risk to the management and it’s the management’s responsibility to make decisions on risk based on it. If we never provide information in a language or format they can utilise, we’re always going to be seen as these strange people who live in the basement and occasionally come into the boardroom and start speaking something that sounds like Klingon to the C-level execs.
The other issue is that information security risk isn’t the only risk that companies need to consider, even if we do try to treat ourselves like a special little snowflake. An organisation’s risk function has to balance – liquidity risk; currency risk; supply chain risk; asset risk; competition risk; pricing risk; and capital availability to name but a few. We’re often so wrapped up in our own little worlds that are so important to want we do and we vent when decisions don’t go “our-way” forgetting that the C-level suite are running a company whose main business probably isn’t information security.
A classic example I can illustrate happened to myself. I came into a budget meeting armed with a risk assessment and a budgeted control suite – risk to the business was around 800K, cost of controls were about 200K and residual risk would have been around 200K. Job done the average quantitative risk wonk would say (it was a much more in-depth risk analysis than I am demonstrating here for the sake of brevity), but the issue was that if that 200K was invested in three more sales people they’d bring in much more than 800K in revenue to the organisation, which at the time was exhibiting now’t wrong with a Yorkshire accenta 98% customer retention rate, and future growth, and operational costs, was funded out of customer subscriptions. When you took into the balance of information security risk vs. opportunity risk, my project was a bad call.
So the presentation of risk in a language the business understands and that allows a normalised comparison with other forms of risk, if you operate an Enterprise Risk Management framework, is one of the key success criteria for good security operations.
So what does good management information look like? Well, financial metrics are a good start. Everyone in the C-suite understand pounds, shillings and pence (excuse my pre-metric example, dollars and cents to my US friends) – it’s a good place to start. Creating financial metrics has long been a difficult proposition, but there are several ways to do it. Myself, I tend to map my SIEM event categories onto the VERIS framework. This then lets me use the average costs and time-to-resolve metrics from the Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report, which I still consider to be one of the best yardsticks of what is going on in the wider world, to show my organisations performance against the average.
The other is that it most have context, providing count based metrics for the whole organisation doesn’t impart any information about what line-of-business assets are involved and what the potential bottom-line is to the business. “37 unauthorised access attempts across Acme Corp” says one thing, “34 on cardholder processing systems”, “2 on bank transfer systems”, “1 on the customer relationship management system”, all of which are buried deep inside your infrastructure behind several layers of now’t wrong with a Yorkshire accentnow’t wrong with a Yorkshire accentcontrols, says quite another. I’m going to talk more about this in a later blog posting, so I am going to part this here for a while.
Another aspect of the context is granularity, and this normally requires input from the analysts and incident responders and some form of established taxonomy for the more granular categorisation of incidents. For instances saying you’ve blocked “34 malware infections” says one thing, saying “24 malware infections were stopped at the host level and we’re detected by the Intrusion Detection System”, or out of the other 10, “5 exhibited DNS behaviour showing they attempted to connect over port 443 to external systems” and that the other “5 encrypted the harddisks of systems in our payroll department just before payday”.
It’s not just about the granularity, it’s also about the curation. Helping the exec’s understand what the impact is to the business is?; giving advice on what they could do about it? who is the likely perpetrator is, based on the tools, techniques and procedures they are using, or at least provide an indicator of what their capability is?; understanding when this started, is it a part of a campaign or a single attack? Is it still ongoing?; how did this occur? What vulnerabilities did the attacker exploit? How could this be prevented from happening again?; the most difficult, and often most important question: why did this attacker attack us? What were they after?
Having management information that allows information security risk to have a seat at the boardroom table with the rest of the functions that handle risk is a starting point. now’t wrong with a Yorkshire accent Providing context to the C-level execs enabling them to make informed risk decisions helps move security operations from a reactive function, to one that is proactive. When this is coupled with the topics I’m going to talk about in my next couple of postings: providing line-of-business metrics and using threat intelligence, we’re moving from a Jarrow-accent to a Received Pronunciation one – although there’s now’t wrong with a Yorkshire accent as my fiancée is from Hull